Marx developed a theory of alienation to reveal the human actions, which lie behind the ostensibly impersonal forces dominating the society. He demonstrated how various features of the society, which seem to be natural are, as a result, of past human activities. Marx understood alienation as a core aspect of the material world. He defined it as the loss of control, especially the loss of control over labor.
He rejected the common sense idea that humans have a fixed nature that exists independently of their society. Consequently, he demonstrated that many of the aspects associated with the unchanging human nature vary enormously in different societies. However, he did not oppose the idea of human nature itself. He claimed that the need to labor on nature to gratify human needs was the only consistent aspect of all human societies. Human beings like all other living creatures must work on the nature to survive. However, Marx distinguished the labor of animals from that of humans in the sense that human beings developed consciousness.
Marx's research showed that human being's alienation in the domain of work has a fourfold dimension. His study revealed that a man is alienated from the items he produces, the process of production, from his community, and from himself. Since man is alienated from himself, he cannot fully develop all his aspects of personality. Consequently, he gets denial instead of fulfillment from his work. Thus, human beings feel at ease in their home during leisure time, but at work, they feel homeless. In essence, Marx aimed at revealing that the relationship existing between an employee and his work is something alien. He demonstrates activity as a form of suffering, creation as emasculation, and strength as powerlessness.
In conclusion, Max theory of alienation revealed that what makes man human is his ability to shape the world around him in a conscious manner. However, under a capitalist society, his labor is coerced. Capitalism increases man's ability to produce, but all those involved in the production process do not enjoy its benefits. Max asserts that the labor creates happiness to the rich and privation to the workers. It paves the way for mansions but hovels the employees. Labor procures beauty for the rich but brings a deformity for the worker. In the end, instead of workers enjoying the fruits of their actions, they lead indigent lives.